Interpreting A Pet Rat’s Bites

It will happen eventually; your pet rats will bite you. But most of the time, their reason for biting you is not because they want to eat you, or because they don’t like you, or whatever negative things that you interpret a bite to mean. No, most of the time, they are probably showing you some love and affection.

Lacking speech, rats communicate in different ways. Sometimes, they do so with their teeth. Since we are not covered in furs, rat bites can sometimes sting us. Bites vary in severity, and it is important for pet rat owners to distinguish what bites from rats mean. Most rat bites don’t break our skin. Some are just slight nips while some are a little harder. It is rare for a pet rat’s bite to penetrate human skin. When it does happen, often times, it is the owner’s fault.

Gentle nips can be interpreted as some sort of grooming. Yes, rats love to groom each other and if you keep them as pets then they will groom you too most probably because they like you. These nips can be considered as tokens of affection. Don’t pull away your hand when a rat is doing this. Usually, a pet rat scrapes its teeth on your skin to groom you. Other times, gentle nips can also be perceived as something that a rat does to test what kind of being you are and what you are made of, specially when it is still new in your care. It is because the rat is curious and not because it is hungry. There are times though when a pet rat might lick you and nip you because it wants to taste you. But this only happens when you’ve recently just handled some food and you didn’t wash your hands.

There are some moments as well that a rat is grumpy and is not really interested in playing. When you annoy it while it is feeling like this, be prepared for a harder nip. This kind of bite might be harder but it certainly is not that hard enough to break your skin. During moments such as these, just leave the rat alone and don’t disturb it. It will come to you when it’s ready to play and be petted, eventually.

Hard bites that don’t break the skin can also be interpreted as some sort of a game that rats like to play. Your pet rats might think it’s fun, but as these kinds of rat bites sting much more than gentle nips, you should probably try and devise a way to let them know that you don’t like these kinds of game. Don’t get angry with them, just find a solution to stop them from doing it. Do whatever works as long as they’ll learn that playing is good but hard nipping is definitely bad.

It is rare for a pet rat’s bite to draw blood. It does happen though, most probably because you startled or scared it so much its first reaction is to bite hard. Remember that rats are typically prey because of their size and so they startle easily. Don’t startle them.

Bites from pet rats are usually not that hard. Just remember that for a pet rat, a bite is some way of communication or a sign of affection. Don’t be scared because your rat bit you. It’s just showing you how much it likes you.



Source by Dean Ramilo

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Whirlpool Use and Whirlpool Temperatures for Physical Therapy

In physical therapy, whirlpool refers to a special kind of bathtub used in water baths or hydrotherapy. Whirlpools generate air bubbles and water from pumps placed at strategic points allowing the flow of air and water to massage specific muscles of the body. The intensity of circulation of air and water provides either gentle or deep massage. Whirlpools can be either cold or hot with adjustable whirlpool temperatures for physical therapy.

There are different types of whirlpools. They can be permanent fixtures or portable sets. Some whirlpool designs allow full body submersion and others are made for treatment of extremities only. There are cold whirlpools, which is often for treatment of single parts of the body, and warm whirlpools, for full body therapy.

Usually, cold whirlpool temperatures for physical therapy are set at a range of 50º F to 70º F while warm whirlpool temperatures for physical therapy ranges from 100º F to 110º F. Depending on the temperature, whirlpool treatments can last from 10 minutes up to 30 minutes.

Whirlpools are ideal for improving circulation and performing range of movement exercises. In addition, wound care is one of the common uses of whirlpools in physical therapy. Warm whirlpool temperatures for physical therapy wound treatment cleanse wounds; increases blood circulation in the wounded area as well as relieve pain. It also helps soften necrotic tissues and reduce wound infections.

Physical therapists follow a guide for the administration of whirlpool treatment for wound care. Typically, patients undergo whirlpool treatment once to twice every day for 20 minutes. Depending on your wound, whirlpool treatment may include the use of an antiseptic. After whirlpool, the therapist rinses the wound with water to remove any residues.

Therapists closely monitor whirlpool temperatures for physical therapy. Usually, therapists keep the water temperature at 92 °F to 96 °F and not exceeding 38 °C for patients with cardiopulmonary disease. The higher the temperature of the water the greater is the blood circulation.

Health care clinics and facilities have strict policies when it comes to sanitation in whirlpool or water therapy. Personnel must properly clean whirlpool tanks and use disinfectants to prevent infections.

Whirlpool treatment is not for all wound patients. There are also only certain types of wounds that can really benefit from this treatment. Some wounds may even become worse with this method of care. Your therapist will evaluate if whirlpool treatment is suitable to your health condition and type of wound.



Source by Milos Pesic

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The Ghosts and Hauntings of Holyrood Palace

A murderous nobleman, an executed queen, and a naked witch are believed to be some of the restless spirits said to walk the venerable halls of Holyrood Palace. Situated at one end of Edinburgh’s prestigious Royal Mile, Holyrood Palace has played a central role in the eventful history of Scotland’s capital. Officially called the Palace of Holyroodhouse, it was the favoured palace of several of Scotland’s rulers, and is currently the UK monarch’s Royal Scottish residence. However in its past, the palace also provided the backdrop for a number of notably gruesome incidents.

When James VI of Scotland was returning from Denmark with his new queen, their ship was almost sunk in a fearsome storm. James had a profound belief in sorcery at the time and was convinced that the storm had been caused by witchcraft. His theories led on to an event in 1590 which came to be known as the North Berwick witch trials, a notorious episode in the country’s history which saw numerous people, of varying rank, rounded up on suspicion of using sorcery against the king. Many of these unfortunates were subsequently imprisoned, tortured, and eventually executed. The North Berwick trials were the first major outbreak of witchcraft persecution in Scotland.

Agnes Sampson was one of the accused in the Berwick trials. Known as the ‘Wise Wife of Keith’, she was brought to Holyrood Palace on specific orders by King James where she was stripped bare and her body shaved. She was then interrogated in the monarch’s presence before being affixed to a wall through the aid of a “Witch’s Bridle”. King James wavered for a while before declaring Agnes guilty of sorcery. She was then taken to Castle Hill, an infamous spot for the execution of convicted witches, where she was strangled and burned at the stake. However some say that this wasn’t the last of Agnes Sampson, and her vengeful ghost, known as ‘Bald Agnes’, is still rumoured to roam nude around Holyrood Palace, the place of her terrible captivity.

In the realms of the supernatural, the ghost of Mary, Queen of Scots is arguably one of the most ubiquitous of phantoms. There have been reports of her apparition at several locations in Scotland, including Stirling Castle and Craignethan Castle, as well as in England, where she was ultimately beheaded; a particularly messy execution that took place in Fotheringhay Castle on February 8, 1587. She lived at Holyrood Palace between 1561 and 1567 and her much-travelled spirit is still reputed to visit the place. The ghost of Mary’s second husband, Henry Stewart, more commonly known as Lord Darnley, is also said to haunt Holyrood. His spectre has apparently been sighted on numerous occasions roaming the palace grounds with a guilt-ridden countenance.

In 1566, the palace was the setting for a frightful murder when David Rizzio, a young Italian courtier and private secretary to Mary, Queen of Scots, was brutally done to death by Lord Darnley and his cohorts. The hot-headed Darnley had grown terribly jealous of Rizzio’s close relationship with his wife. The Italian had been playing cards with Mary when Darnley, accompanied by several noblemen, burst into the queen’s private chambers via means of a hidden staircase. Rizzio’s body was thrown down the main staircase at Holyrood after being stabbed 56 times. The young Italian’s ghost is said to still haunt the palace and there is also an indelible bloodstain on the spot where he perished, apparently still visible to this day.



Source by Ben H Wright

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Why Preliminary Designing Is Important in Leatherwork

Preliminary design refers to the designs that are made prior to the production of the real product in Leatherwork. They are usually in the form of sketches carried out on paper. Preliminary designing is of immense importance in the field of Leatherwork production.

• It offers opportunity for selecting from a series of designs-

Preliminary designing helps the leather artist to have a wide range of designs to choose from for the designing of leather articles. This helps him to make a better choice of design for his products because he is not handicapped as far as design selection is concerned.

• It prevents wastage of materials-

It assists the leather craftsman to envision how a finished product would look like. This enables him to use his raw materials judiciously, avoiding unnecessary waste. He cuts his materials with accuracy and precision because he had planned the cutting of each part of the leather product.

• Gives the chance to have the end products in view-

Preliminary designing helps the leather craftsman to see how the finished product will look like even before its execution. This helps him to make the necessary corrections and additions required before the final work is made. Usually, the client is made to see how the design will look like when it is finally produced with the actual materials. Therefore, the queries of the client are factored before the product’s actual execution.

• It offers the opportunity to plan and prepare adequately-

It affords the leather craftsman the opportunity to plan and prepare the design for his products very well. This makes his products of a high quality since it has been well planned before its execution.

• It offers the chance to work accurately and with precision-

Preliminary designing ensures that mistakes in the working of the final product are avoided or minimized. This is due to the fact that the precise sizes and shapes of the articles have been already determined. Thus, articles are cut with precision and accuracy.

• It serves as a guide-

The preliminary design serves as a guide for the leather craftsman in the manufacture of his articles. Since he has a guide, he works at an extremely fast rate. The guide enables him to work systematically to achieve his set goals.

Preliminary designing should be very important to every leather craftsman because it impacts positively on the total outlook of his/her productions, attracting large market share for his/her enterprise.



Source by Dickson Adom

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Different Types of Eye Surgery and Their Effectiveness

The use of computer technology in medical science has been extending during recent years. Laser eye surgery has become more and more popular, while non-laser procedures have also improved. Although many people think that LASIK is the only type of refractive surgery, there are in fact various types of eye surgery for correcting vision.

Laser Eye Surgery

These procedures involve the use of a laser to reshape the cornea in order to improve the eye’s ability to focus. There are several types of laser eye surgery, such as LASIK, LASEK, Intralense or PRK.

Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK)

This procedure is used to treat astigmatism, nearsightedness and farsightedness. The surgeon removes a flap through the outer and middle layer of the cornea and then uses an excimer laser to remove tissue under the flap. This type of eye surgery usually takes about one minute per eye.

Laser Epithelial Keratomileusis (LASEK)

LASEK is very similar to LASIK, except for the fact that the flap is cut only from the outer layer of the cornea (epithelium). It is used mostly for patients with thin corneas, who are not eligible for LASIK. It is a newer procedure with a few drawbacks, such as more discomfort and slightly longer healing period.

IntraLense

This type of eye surgery is also very similar to LASIK, except that the surgeon uses an extra laser instead of a blade to create the flap in the outer layers.

Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK)

This procedure is used to treat astigmatism, nearsightedness and mild to moderate farsightedness. A laser is used to remove tissue from the outer layer of the cornea and correct vision. The surgeon doesn’t cut any flap in the cornea. The surgery usually lasts less than a minute.

Non-laser Eye Surgery

These surgical procedures involve improving vision by cutting into the surface of the eye, reshaping the cornea or using low heat radio waves. Astigmatic keratotomy incisions, intraocular lenses and implantable contact lenses are among the most common non-laser eye surgery procedures.

Astigmatic Keratotomy Incisions

This procedure is used to correct mild astigmatism. Bulgy areas of the cornea are reshaped by using a blade. Many patients undergo such a treatment in conjunction with other types of eye surgery. However, it is now less frequently used than laser eye surgery procedures, such as PRK or LASIK.

Implantable Contact Lenses

These are implantation devices used to treat severe farsightedness and nearsightedness. The lens is placed behind the iris, in front of the natural lens of the eye. Unlike normal contact lenses, you can’t feel them and they don’t need maintenance. The procedure can take from 6 to 20 minutes.

Intraocular Lenses (IOLs)

This type of eye surgery has been around for many decades now and the lenses are usually implanted during a cataract surgery to replace the natural lens of the eye. Years ago, these lenses used to help only with distance vision and patients needed to wear glasses for close vision. However, the method has been improved and now helps with close and intermediate vision as well.

While many surgeons prefer laser procedures and the newest technologies, some still advise a small number of patients to choose a non-laser surgery instead. All eye surgery procedures involve certain risks and have possible side effects, so it is best to consult a physician to fill you in with all the details about each treatment.



Source by Sue Taylor

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