Definition and Characteristics of Signs and Symbols

A sign is any written or drawn representation that expresses or indicates the existence or meaning of that particular thought. On the other hand, a symbol is a representation of an abstracted idea with a sign, shape, colour etc. because of convention, association or resemblance. Signs and symbols are synonymous terms that express the same meaning. Symbolism is the ideas behind the symbols used for the production of the work. They are the suggestions through imagery of something that is invisible or intangible. This representation of the material object is not simply for its own interest or beauty, but as standing for an abstract idea.

Symbols embody the ideas, norms, values and beliefs of a group, association, ethnic society or nation. Therefore, when they are used in the production of artefacts the sole aim is using it to propagate and educate the users about the cultural gems of their society. This makes artefacts produced with these symbols functional.

Signs and symbols are easily identified by the characteristics stated below.

1. It should quickly and readily be recognised, recalled or remembered- It must not be difficult for someone to remember the shape of the symbol or sign. This implies that it must be unique but simple in its representation.

2. It should show the image of the company- A well designed sign or symbol of a company must quickly tell what the company does or clients must be able to predict the activities of the company from the symbol or sign it has adopted as its logo.

3. It should reach the appropriate understanding level of the intended audience- A good sign or symbol must be able to be understood by all the members of the populace. This includes both the literate and illiterate classes in the society. Despite the variance in their educational levels, all the targeted audience must be able to understand it.

4. It should be smaller in size- Symbols are usually smaller in dimension and must be able to be reproduced at a faster rate with no difficulty. In addition, it must be able to be seen, though smaller in size from all directions.

5. It may be designed in one colour- Symbols and signs are mostly designed in one colour, preferably black and in a silhouette manner. However, some signs for companies, associations and institutions are sometimes coloured to reflect the beliefs, values and ideologies of the respective group.



Source by Dickson Adom

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Submit Your URL to Chinese Search Engines

It is certainly true that the Internet is dominated by the English language – it has been estimated that 75% of all Internet pages worldwide are written in English. But surprise, surprise – the world’s No. 1 language in terms of number of native speakers is also the most difficult to read – Chinese, with about three times as many native speakers (and readers) as English. China has the second greatest number of Internet users in the world (behind only the United States), and its Internet market is one of the world’s fastest-growing. Furthermore, its buoyant economy is impossible to ignore – every year millions are added to its relatively affluent middle class. You’d be surprised at how many Chinese can read English – small in proportion to total population, but large in number. You might also be surprised at how many Chinese yuppies (“Chuppies”) carry a Visa (the credit card, not the kind of visa that is stamped on a passport!).

Do you have a product that might sell well in China? That’s a hard question to answer, but as a one-sentence primer, affluent Chinese gravitate towards any product with name-brand appeal or snob appeal, and any product that is closely associated with the United States (sarcastically dubbed the “Mickey Mouse Syndrome” by certain envious economic rivals). If you are going global, you cannot afford to ignore China – and if your business has a website, it should be searchable in China.

Following are the URLs for site submission to ten Chinese search engines. The sites are all written in Chinese, but if you can get past the language barrier, anything is possible…

Top 10 Chinese Search Engines

1. Baidu: http://baidu.com/search/url_submit.htm

2. Sina: [http://iask.com/guest/add_url.php]

3. Sohu: [http://db.sohu.com/regurl/regform.asp?Step=REGFORM&class=]

4. Yahoo China: http://cn.yahoo.com/docs/info/suggest.html

5. Google China: http://www.google.com/intl/zh-CN/add_url.html

6. Sobao: [http://search.sobao.com/Computers_and_Internet/Personal/]

7. Tianwang: http://home.tianwang.com/denglu.htm

8. China-Holiday: [http://china-holiday.com/newterms/hall/it/sort.asp?sortid=259]

9. Wangluobing: [http://www.net7b.com/net7b_/denglu/index.asp] o

10. Sunwukong: http://www.sunwukong.cn/add.php

The first six of the foregoing are major players, but the rest are marginal and may well be out of business by the time you read this (then again, you never know…).

Happy hunting!



Source by David Carnes

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Central Line Stations With Tourist Attractions and Shopping Activities

The Central Line, the red line on London Underground maps, runs across central London.

The line starts from Epping in the north-east and terminates at a) Ealing Broadway in the west and b) West Ruislip in the north-west. The Central line covers a distance of 74km (46 miles) and serves 49 tube stations.

Listed below are some of the 49 tube stations that most tourists are likely to use when they visit London.

Stratford station is the stop where the Olympic Village (London Olympics 2012) is located. You need to change here for the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) and stop at Pudding Mill Lane (1 stop from Stratford station) where the Olympic Stadium is located.

Liverpool Street station is one of the main railway stations in London. This is the station where visitors take the train to Stanstead Airport.

Other attractions near Liverpool Street station include the Gherkin Building, Toynbee Hall and the Whitechapel Art Gallery.

Bank station is close to several tourist attractions including Mansion House (the official residence of the Lord Mayor of the City of London), the Bank of England, The Royal Exchange, Leadenhall Market and the Lloyd’s Building.

Lloyds Building is the home of the insurance institution, Lloyds of London, the world’s leading insurance market.

St Paul’s station is a short walk to St Paul’s Cathedral, the second largest cathedral in the world after St Peter’s Cathedral in Rome.

Other tourist attractions near St Paul’s station include the Museum of London, Millennium Pedestrian Bridge, Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre and the Tate Modern. From the Tate Modern you can take a relaxing walk along the river bank and enjoy the wonderful sights and sounds of London.

Near Chancery Lane station are the Inns of Court, the Royal Courts of Justice, the Yeomanry Museum and the London Silver Vaults (the home to the world’s largest retail collection of fine antique silver).

Stop at Holborn station for Lincoln’s Inn, the British Museum, Sir John Soane’s Museum, The Hunterian Museum, the London School of Economics and the Royal College of Surgeons.

During the year Law students are required to dine “in Hall” of Lincoln’s Inn a certain number of times before they qualify to be “called to the Bar”.

You get off at Tottenham Court Road station if you are visiting the British Museum, the Dominion Theatre and the Central YMCA. Most of the West End theatres and London Chinatown are located in the south of Tottenham Court Road station.

Tottenham Court Road shops are renowned for the sale of electrical goods like televisions and computers.

Oxford Circus station is the centre of the busiest shopping district in London. This is where Oxford Street (running in east-west direction) meets Regent Street (running in north-south direction). Both Oxford Street and Regent Street are very busy shopping streets and that is why most people prefer to stop at Oxford Circus when they come to the West End to shop.

Bond Street station is one stop west of Oxford Street station. Shops in Bond Street stock elegant and expensive designer clothes and accessories. Celebrities from all over the world are often seen shopping in Bond Street.

New Bond Street and South Moulton Street, both streets renowned for elegant and expensive jewellery and watches, are only a short distance away from Bond Street station.

Selfridges Department Store is just a couple of minutes walk from the station.

Marble Arch station is located at the west end of Oxford Street. Opposite Marble Arch station is Park Lane, famous for its 5 star hotels such as the Dorchester Hotel, InterContinental Hotel and Hilton Park Lane. If you walk halfway down Park Lane, you will see the Animal in War Memorial. This memorial is to commemorate the contributions made by animals that serve alongside troops during the war.

Hyde Park is located to the west of Marble Arch station and the Speakers Corner is only less than 5 minutes walk away.

Lancaster Gate station is where you get off if you are visiting the Hyde Park Italian Gardens, the Serpentine, Diana, Princess of Wales Fountain and the Bayswater Road Artists Gallery.

Queensway station is the stop if you are visiting Kensington Palace. You can also start your “Diana, Princess of Wales, Memorial Walk” from Kensington Gardens across the station. This is a 7 mile walk across 4 Royal Parks, 3 Royal Palaces and several popular London landmarks. You just follow the Diana Memorial Walk plaques that are embedded along the route.

Fashionable Notting Hill Gate is renowned for the Notting Hill Gate Carnival. This event is held here annually during the August Bank Holiday and is organised by the Caribbean community. This is a very popular event and each year hundreds of thousands of people converge here to join in the celebrations.

Portobello Road Market is also internationally known and is busiest on Saturdays.

Holland Park is a lovely park with its famous Orangery, Kyoto Garden and open air theatre.

Holland House, originally known as Cope Castle, is now a ruin, having been destroyed by bombs during World War II.

Next to Shepherd’s Bush station is the Westfield Shopping Centre with more than 300 shops under one roof and is currently the largest urban shopping complex in Europe.

White City station. Here you can visit the BBC Television Centre and join its tours. Nearby is Loftus Road Stadium, home of Queens Park Rangers Football Club and the London Wasps Rugby Club.

Apart from Stratford station (zone 3) and Holland Park, Shepherd’s Bush and White City stations (zone 2), all the other Central line stations listed above are in zone 1. So if you are not planning to visit these stations, you only need to buy a 1-day Travelcard for zone 1. That will give you unlimited travel for a day in zone 1 by bus as well as by tube.



Source by Chow Siew

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How to Upload Files to the Internet

Most people have no problem downloading from the Internet. You usually click a link, then tell the browser where to store it. But how do you get a file from your computer up to the internet?

To get a file up to the internet, use FTP. That stands for File Transfer Protocol.

What is FTP?

FTP is actually a very simple process. The assembler language code for simple FTP is only a few lines long.

FTP software is more elaborate of course. It has error correction, login and security features, etc.

FTP Software

If you just want to upload a few files, you can use Windows Explorer to upload. It has some peculiarities. And it may take some getting used to. But once you get the feel of it, it is not too bad.

You can also use FTP software. You can find free FTP software. Filezilla is free, and does not come with adware or other such nonsense. And it works quite well.

There is CuteFTP which a lot of people like. It is very user friendly.

Then you have the professional FTP such as WS-FTP Pro. If you are going to upload a bunch of files, or very large files, you will want to spend a little money of a professional FTP software. At the time of this writing (December, 2008) Professional FTP software runs less than $100 USD.

Where to upload files to?

If you have a website, you can upload your files there.

If you want to share photos with people, you may not even need FTP software. You can find websites like Photobucket that have FTP capability built in to their site. You get what you pay for, though. Photobucket has its limits.

You can also buy “hosting”. You may also want to buy a domain name. If you just want to upload photos or other stuff to share with your friends, you can find a cheap hosting plan. You’ll almost certainly want to buy a domain name. Domain names run about $20 per year or less.

How to upload the files.

Once you have a place to upload to, regardless of which method of uploading you choose, you will need certain information. Below is a list of information you will need for almost any FTP connection. Your host may have a few more things you’ll need to enter.

  • The FTP host: This can be an IP address (An IP address looks like 123.45.678.90) or a domain name. Sometimes preceded with “ftp.” A common FTP host may look like: ftp.somewebsite.com
  • Starting or Home Folder: Your host will have to let you know this. Some common starting folders for websites are /public_html, /wwwroot, /httpdocs… There are several more. Note: You will probably not enter any leading or trailing forward slashes (/) in your FTP configuration.
  • Passive or Active FTP? Try Passive FTP first if you are not sure. It is the most common kind.
  • Username and password: Self-explanatory. Don’t be surprised if your username looks like an email address.
  • The FTP Port: You may not ever have to enter the port. Port 21 is used almost universally.



Source by Allen Howard

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Making Your Home Wheelchair Friendly

Adapting our homes to be more wheelchair friendly does not have to cost the earth, but there are some essential adaptations that have to be made in order to make the daily life of a wheelchair user as independent as possible. Whether it is for a wheelchair bound child that will grow up in your house, or for an adult that has only recently needed the use of a wheelchair, they will want to be able to do things they have always done, be it take a shower, help to set the table, or just move about their home easily and at their leisure. Follow the simple steps detailed below to ensure that the main living areas of your home are wheelchair friendly, none of them cost very much and are easy to install.

General

Make the road surfaces leading up to the house weather proof in all seasons by laying concrete down. For easy manoeuvrability around the home, loose carpet and rugs should be removed. You do not have to replace your furniture but try to change your room around so that there are wide enough spaces for a wheelchair to move around. Perhaps the most important change you can make to your house when making it more wheelchair friendly is a bump rail. Not only will a bump rail protect the wheels on the chair, but they will also prevent any damage caused by scrapes and impacts on the wall, which is costly to keep maintained. It is difficult to repair damage to walls and paint over any fixed areas whilst ensuring easy movement around the home.

The Doorways

The entrance to your house should be accessible by ramp at a shallow gradient, to prevent any extra strain when entering or exiting your home. It is important that the doorways are wide enough to easily fit a wheelchair through without the user banging their elbows. If you have narrow doorways, consider removing the door frame and leaving the space open plan so that the hassle of opening and closing the door is also reduced. If your doorways are already wide enough, swap the handles for lever style handles instead of door knobs as they are easier for a wheelchair user to master. To prevent any damage to the door or frame coming from constant banging by the wheels, install door edge protectors and this will preserve the aesthetics of the doorway.

The Kitchen

Kitchens are probably the trickiest area of a house to make wheelchair friendly without a total redesign. However there are small things you can do to make everyday living more relaxing. Move favourite foods and snacks to cupboards on a lower level, and try to use roll away carts as kitchen surfaces as they are easier for a wheelchair to fit under. If you can, exchange appliances that have top level controls for those with the buttons on the front. This will make them easier and safer to use, especially the oven and hob.

The Bathroom

The bathroom is where you are likely to spend the most money but it is essential to preserve the dignity and independence of any wheelchair user. Change your existing toilet bowl for one specifically designed for use by a commode wheelchair, and install a water powered seat that is height adjustable to make getting in and out of the bath or shower easier. Minor adaptations include installing grab bars on the walls and the side of the bath or shower, and covering the floor in a slip resistant surface for safety reasons.

None of these adaptations mean spending thousands of pounds or totally redesigning your home. They are simple steps that you can make to ensure that any wheelchair user living or visiting your home feels completely at ease and independent.



Source by Mark Andrew Woodcock

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