The Ghosts and Hauntings of Holyrood Palace

A murderous nobleman, an executed queen, and a naked witch are believed to be some of the restless spirits said to walk the venerable halls of Holyrood Palace. Situated at one end of Edinburgh’s prestigious Royal Mile, Holyrood Palace has played a central role in the eventful history of Scotland’s capital. Officially called the Palace of Holyroodhouse, it was the favoured palace of several of Scotland’s rulers, and is currently the UK monarch’s Royal Scottish residence. However in its past, the palace also provided the backdrop for a number of notably gruesome incidents.

When James VI of Scotland was returning from Denmark with his new queen, their ship was almost sunk in a fearsome storm. James had a profound belief in sorcery at the time and was convinced that the storm had been caused by witchcraft. His theories led on to an event in 1590 which came to be known as the North Berwick witch trials, a notorious episode in the country’s history which saw numerous people, of varying rank, rounded up on suspicion of using sorcery against the king. Many of these unfortunates were subsequently imprisoned, tortured, and eventually executed. The North Berwick trials were the first major outbreak of witchcraft persecution in Scotland.

Agnes Sampson was one of the accused in the Berwick trials. Known as the ‘Wise Wife of Keith’, she was brought to Holyrood Palace on specific orders by King James where she was stripped bare and her body shaved. She was then interrogated in the monarch’s presence before being affixed to a wall through the aid of a “Witch’s Bridle”. King James wavered for a while before declaring Agnes guilty of sorcery. She was then taken to Castle Hill, an infamous spot for the execution of convicted witches, where she was strangled and burned at the stake. However some say that this wasn’t the last of Agnes Sampson, and her vengeful ghost, known as ‘Bald Agnes’, is still rumoured to roam nude around Holyrood Palace, the place of her terrible captivity.

In the realms of the supernatural, the ghost of Mary, Queen of Scots is arguably one of the most ubiquitous of phantoms. There have been reports of her apparition at several locations in Scotland, including Stirling Castle and Craignethan Castle, as well as in England, where she was ultimately beheaded; a particularly messy execution that took place in Fotheringhay Castle on February 8, 1587. She lived at Holyrood Palace between 1561 and 1567 and her much-travelled spirit is still reputed to visit the place. The ghost of Mary’s second husband, Henry Stewart, more commonly known as Lord Darnley, is also said to haunt Holyrood. His spectre has apparently been sighted on numerous occasions roaming the palace grounds with a guilt-ridden countenance.

In 1566, the palace was the setting for a frightful murder when David Rizzio, a young Italian courtier and private secretary to Mary, Queen of Scots, was brutally done to death by Lord Darnley and his cohorts. The hot-headed Darnley had grown terribly jealous of Rizzio’s close relationship with his wife. The Italian had been playing cards with Mary when Darnley, accompanied by several noblemen, burst into the queen’s private chambers via means of a hidden staircase. Rizzio’s body was thrown down the main staircase at Holyrood after being stabbed 56 times. The young Italian’s ghost is said to still haunt the palace and there is also an indelible bloodstain on the spot where he perished, apparently still visible to this day.



Source by Ben H Wright

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Why Preliminary Designing Is Important in Leatherwork

Preliminary design refers to the designs that are made prior to the production of the real product in Leatherwork. They are usually in the form of sketches carried out on paper. Preliminary designing is of immense importance in the field of Leatherwork production.

• It offers opportunity for selecting from a series of designs-

Preliminary designing helps the leather artist to have a wide range of designs to choose from for the designing of leather articles. This helps him to make a better choice of design for his products because he is not handicapped as far as design selection is concerned.

• It prevents wastage of materials-

It assists the leather craftsman to envision how a finished product would look like. This enables him to use his raw materials judiciously, avoiding unnecessary waste. He cuts his materials with accuracy and precision because he had planned the cutting of each part of the leather product.

• Gives the chance to have the end products in view-

Preliminary designing helps the leather craftsman to see how the finished product will look like even before its execution. This helps him to make the necessary corrections and additions required before the final work is made. Usually, the client is made to see how the design will look like when it is finally produced with the actual materials. Therefore, the queries of the client are factored before the product’s actual execution.

• It offers the opportunity to plan and prepare adequately-

It affords the leather craftsman the opportunity to plan and prepare the design for his products very well. This makes his products of a high quality since it has been well planned before its execution.

• It offers the chance to work accurately and with precision-

Preliminary designing ensures that mistakes in the working of the final product are avoided or minimized. This is due to the fact that the precise sizes and shapes of the articles have been already determined. Thus, articles are cut with precision and accuracy.

• It serves as a guide-

The preliminary design serves as a guide for the leather craftsman in the manufacture of his articles. Since he has a guide, he works at an extremely fast rate. The guide enables him to work systematically to achieve his set goals.

Preliminary designing should be very important to every leather craftsman because it impacts positively on the total outlook of his/her productions, attracting large market share for his/her enterprise.



Source by Dickson Adom

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Different Types of Eye Surgery and Their Effectiveness

The use of computer technology in medical science has been extending during recent years. Laser eye surgery has become more and more popular, while non-laser procedures have also improved. Although many people think that LASIK is the only type of refractive surgery, there are in fact various types of eye surgery for correcting vision.

Laser Eye Surgery

These procedures involve the use of a laser to reshape the cornea in order to improve the eye’s ability to focus. There are several types of laser eye surgery, such as LASIK, LASEK, Intralense or PRK.

Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK)

This procedure is used to treat astigmatism, nearsightedness and farsightedness. The surgeon removes a flap through the outer and middle layer of the cornea and then uses an excimer laser to remove tissue under the flap. This type of eye surgery usually takes about one minute per eye.

Laser Epithelial Keratomileusis (LASEK)

LASEK is very similar to LASIK, except for the fact that the flap is cut only from the outer layer of the cornea (epithelium). It is used mostly for patients with thin corneas, who are not eligible for LASIK. It is a newer procedure with a few drawbacks, such as more discomfort and slightly longer healing period.

IntraLense

This type of eye surgery is also very similar to LASIK, except that the surgeon uses an extra laser instead of a blade to create the flap in the outer layers.

Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK)

This procedure is used to treat astigmatism, nearsightedness and mild to moderate farsightedness. A laser is used to remove tissue from the outer layer of the cornea and correct vision. The surgeon doesn’t cut any flap in the cornea. The surgery usually lasts less than a minute.

Non-laser Eye Surgery

These surgical procedures involve improving vision by cutting into the surface of the eye, reshaping the cornea or using low heat radio waves. Astigmatic keratotomy incisions, intraocular lenses and implantable contact lenses are among the most common non-laser eye surgery procedures.

Astigmatic Keratotomy Incisions

This procedure is used to correct mild astigmatism. Bulgy areas of the cornea are reshaped by using a blade. Many patients undergo such a treatment in conjunction with other types of eye surgery. However, it is now less frequently used than laser eye surgery procedures, such as PRK or LASIK.

Implantable Contact Lenses

These are implantation devices used to treat severe farsightedness and nearsightedness. The lens is placed behind the iris, in front of the natural lens of the eye. Unlike normal contact lenses, you can’t feel them and they don’t need maintenance. The procedure can take from 6 to 20 minutes.

Intraocular Lenses (IOLs)

This type of eye surgery has been around for many decades now and the lenses are usually implanted during a cataract surgery to replace the natural lens of the eye. Years ago, these lenses used to help only with distance vision and patients needed to wear glasses for close vision. However, the method has been improved and now helps with close and intermediate vision as well.

While many surgeons prefer laser procedures and the newest technologies, some still advise a small number of patients to choose a non-laser surgery instead. All eye surgery procedures involve certain risks and have possible side effects, so it is best to consult a physician to fill you in with all the details about each treatment.



Source by Sue Taylor

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Who Should Learn Digital Marketing

To make it simple, digital marketing is nothing but marketing of any product or service done via internet. It is a kind of “new-age” marketing technique which is different from the conventional or traditional systems of marketing. It is different from traditional marketing due to the fact that digital marketing offers the advantage of monitoring the entire aspects related to your marketing strategy. And of course this monitoring can be accomplished in a real time basis.

Nowadays, people spend a considerable amount of time over the internet. The boom of social networking websites in recent years has attracted more and more people to their desktops, laptops and mobile devices. According to recent surveys, it is estimated that an active Facebook user spends an hour on Facebook each day on an average. People nowadays spend more time on internet compared to the past decade. Internet has become an indispensable part of the lives of many. Digital marketing too exploits this situation to the maximum.

Digital marketing techniques are implemented via many means. These techniques make use of search engines like Google, Yahoo, Bing and also adopts methods like email marketing, creating websites, banners etc.

Advantages of Internet Marketing Over Traditional Marketing

• As already discussed in the introduction, the greatest advantage of digital marketing is that it facilitates the scope of monitoring online campaigns, which is otherwise not possible in the case of traditional marketing techniques.

• You may make the analysis of your online campaign right from the start and can determine its progress that too in real time. Real time analysis can be done in matters related to determining traffic to your website, knowing conversion rates and many others.

• Creating inquiries, generating visitors, reaching your target audience, branding related possibilities and many other benefits are associated with digital marketing. Traditional marketing is devoid of all these benefits. Once you have implemented a campaign in traditional marketing system, it is difficult to perform tweaks or other customizing options.

• World wide exposure – The information that you share can be accessed from any part of the globe. Even you can determine or make a preference over your target locations.

• Compared to traditional marketing, the cost of setting up a digital campaign is very less.

• In order to implement a digital marketing campaign, your essential requirements are a computer, internet connection and an in-depth knowledge in digital marketing.

Who should attend internet marketing training program?

Attending a internet marketing training program is a “must do” for anyone would like to get into online marketing. Ranging from a company CEO to a housewife, rather anyone with a basic knowledge of computer and internet can pursue this course.

• Marketing professionals – Marketing professionals who own a BBA or MBA degree, Business development Executives, or other experienced individuals who have been in to marketing must take up this course. For marketing professionals, taking up digital marketing training program should not be viewed as an option to consider later. It is high time that you become aware of the latest digital marketing concepts, without which it is difficult to survive in this ever-changing digital era.

• Individuals who are currently implementing the traditional marketing strategies and who would like to make a “switch-over” – Marketing strategies have to be changed according to the changes that we perceive and feel in our society. Sticking on to the same old marketing tactics may prove fatal and may affect your business prospects in a negative way. Those individuals who would like to try out digital marketing are all invited to this training program. Even merging traditional marketing techniques with web marketing may work out in certain scenarios. After all, the perquisite to attend this course as already indicated is only the basic understanding of computer and the internet.

• Company CEO – The CEO can monitor the marketing strategies adopted by his/her company and can coordinate the implementation procedures with the entire team. Having a though understanding of digital marketing concepts and technicalities makes CEO capable of providing his/her contribution and suggestions to the marketing wing.

• Beneficial for housewives – A vast majority of housewives have ample time at home after performing their routine works. Those housewives who are interested to make some extra income from online marketing can certainly take up the digital marketing course. For example, paintings, art works, handicrafts, dress materials etc can be marketed via online with the least expenditure.

• Students – Students pursuing BBA, MBA and other marketing oriented courses can take up digital marketing course as a part time course along with their studies. It serves as an extra bonus at the time of interviews and can boost up your profile. Moreover, the individuals shall be eligible for placement in IT companies as SEO analyst, Digital marketing Executive etc.

• Others – Web marketing is not meant for marketing professionals or online marketers alone. Even a layman with a strong desire to explore the horizons of digital marketing can master this subject with little bit dedication and hard work.

• Classes according to your convenience – We offer a wide variety of training programs in order to suit your convenience or work schedule. We provide weekend, individual and online classes for our students. We also arrange corporate training for MNCs and start-up ventures. If needed, you may also attend our digital marketing crash course for the duration of 2 days. This will help you attain a quick grasp of digital marketing basics.



Source by Prince Vishnu K

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Work Done While Eating a Cookie: An Interesting Application of Physics in Day to Day Life

In this article we will take an interesting question on theoretical work done while eating a cookie. We will apply the basic concepts of Physics to answer it. We will see that the answer predicted by Physics varies drastically to what we experience in our daily life. In actuality though, the two answers are not very different. We just need to change our perspective to actually see that they are essentially the same.

Question: How much work is involved in eating a 27-gram cookie, if it can be eaten in 6 bites and the distance from hand to mouth is 24 centimeters? The cookie is raised to the mouth at a 45° angle and is put down after each bite. Assume that each bite of cookie has the same mass. (If you need to eat a cookie in order to visualize this problem better, feel free to do so!)

Answer: Assuming that we move the cookie slowly to our mouth, the force applied by our hand must equal to the weight of the cookie. Whether we are lifting up or moving it down, the force applied by hand is always in the upward direction so as to counter the weight of the cookie. When we are moving up the work done by our hand is positive as the force applied and motion are in the same direction.

When we are moving down, the work done by our hand is negative as the force applied by hand and the motion of cookie is in opposite direction. So we can say that the if we move the cookie to our mouth for the first time; we lifted a mass of m*1=27 grams to a height of h=24cm*sin 45= 17 cm (approx). Our bite was just 27/6=4.5 grams. So the remaining m2=27-4.5= 22.5 grams was shifted downward. So in this first trip of upward and downward motion, the total work done was w= (m1*gh – m2*gh)=(m1 – m2)*g*h= 4.5 grams*9.8m/s^2*17cm=0.0075 Joules. Similarly for the next trip, work done will be same. So when we add all the 6 trips, we will get a net work done of W= 6 times of 0.0075 joules. Hence W= 0.0045 Joules. Here we note that the theoretical net work done is simply m*g*h where m is the total mass of the cookie. So whether we eat it in 6 bites or 60 bites does not make any difference as far as the theoretical work done by the hand is concerned.

In real life though if we eat that cookie in say 60 bites, we feel more tired. The reason is simple. Our hand has to lift its own mass as well so for every trip it does work just to move itself up or down. This work is not useful though. So even though Physics might say that its only the mass of the cookie that matters and not the number of bites, but in real life we need to do more work than simply m*g*h. Here it must be noted that h= perpendicular height of 17cm which was obtained by the formula h= 24*cos 45=17 cm.

This article has been composed of the live excerpts of a real session between the student and the tutor on http://www.myphysicsbuddy.com. MyPhysicsBuddy provides online physics tutoring and Physics homework help to students across the globe at an extremely affordable rate. For more such concepts, visit their website.



Source by Samuel Jhon

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