How To Produce Ten Different Lacing Styles

There are several lacing or thonging styles which though form part of the construction of the article, also improve the aesthetic appeal of the article. Some of these styles are discussed in this article.

1. Oversew/ whip stitch

After the holes or slits are created, the thong is passed through the first hole from the underside of the leather and then passed on the top. It follows continuously in that manner till the process is complete.

2. Oversew with two colours

This lacing technique is similar to the oversew technique. However, the difference is that two different coloured thongs are used alternately.

3. Couching

In this process, a different coloured strip of leather is ‘laid’ in skived and stuck in position between the slits and the edges of the leather before the oversew lacing is done on it.

4. Criss-cross/ Cross loop/ Baseball X stitch

Two rows of thongs are used for creating this style. The first row is worked from left to right while the second row is rather worked from right to left. However, intermediate slits or holes are left when the first row is worked on for the second row to fill them in creating the criss-cross pattern.

5. Close criss-cross

This is an oversew thonging style that is worked in an alternate direction like the criss-cross technique. Two different coloured rows of thongs are used.

6. Running

Slits are cut at right angles to the edge of the leather instead of it being parallel with it spaced at equal distances. A flat needle is used to pass the leather strip in alternately in an ‘over-one’, ‘under-one’ manner to create a running thong.

7. Point de Ganse

In this technique, the strip of leather is passed through the first slit and down through the second leaving a small loop. The thong is then pulled up from the underside and passed through the small loop created from the top, pulling the stitch tight.

8. Slanting

As the name suggests, slanting thongs slants to the right. Two rows of slits are created in a slanting direction on the surface of the leather piece with a thonging tool. The thong is passed from the underside through the first slit at the left-hand end of the top row and down through the slit in the bottom row. It is then brought up through the second slit in the top row and down through the next slit in the bottom row.

9. Oversew and Buttonhole

This is a combination of oversewing and buttonhole styles which are done using two thongs of contrasting colours. One of the thongs is used in creating the oversew thonging. After that, the buttonhole is created. It involves threading the thong through one of the overcast stitches already made. It is then passed down through the bottom of the next stitch of oversewing pulling it through, leaving a small loop. Bring the thong up through the small loop and pull it tight. Pass the thong down through the loop while pulling the stitch tight.

10. Slanting and threading

Two contrasting colours of thongs are used. One row of the thong is made in the slanting thonging style. The other thong is threaded under and over the slanting stitches.



Source by Dickson Adom

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The Challenges in The Leatherwork Industry

The leatherwork industries are faced with several difficulties or challenges. Experts in this area must know the challenges so as to devise means of arresting them. The discussed challenges in this article, however, have been dealt with appropriate solutions.

1. Problems of Material Acquisition

The leatherwork industries are faced with the problem of material acquisition. Materials for the production of articles are usually in scarcity. The means of obtaining some of them is very difficult since there are no or few local producers of them. The majority of the materials for leatherwork productions is imported from foreign lands into the country. This makes them very expensive, resulting in high production costs and exorbitant prices for the products. This has seriously affected the patronage and sales of them.

This problem can be curbed by the establishment of more local industries who would produce these materials for leatherwork productions. This would invariably reduce the cost of them and the cost of the products produced from them resulting in higher purchase and patronage. Also, if some of the materials would be imported, the government should reduce the import duty on them to enable customers to be able to purchase locally made leather products.

2. Lack of customer confidence in locally made leather products

Some leather craftsmen fail to use good materials in their productions, but they also impose high prices on their products. Some are very dishonest. They lie to their clients that they’ve used natural leather for their productions while they have used synthetic leather. This has waned the trust that buyers have in local leather craftsmen. They now prefer to buy foreign leather products which have quality as its hallmark unlike the locally produced items which is not durable.

A remedy to this problem is that leather craftsmen should be honest with their clients and speak truth to them. They have to also use good or quality materials for their leather productions. This would bolster the patronage and purchase of the products.

3. Compliance with hallmarking requirements

Most leather craftsmen fail to comply with the hallmark requirements in the leatherwork sector. These include quality control, finishing, packaging, etc. This may be as a result of the deficiency in skill acquisition. This has accounted for the low patronage for locally made leather products.

All leatherwork enterprises should be made to join the professional leatherwork association in a bid to remedy the situation. The association should enforce the hallmark requirements for all leatherwork enterprises. The penalty for infringement of the requirements should be meted out to defaulters to serve as a deterrent to other leather craftsmen.

Also, training should be offered to leather craftsmen on how to maintain these hallmark requirements. Workshops, seminars, forums and talks should be periodically offered to leather craftsmen to abreast them with modern production techniques, finishing etc. Moreover, lectures should be given on work ethics, moral and human values, attitudes etc. If these measures are taken, all leatherwork enterprises in the country would meet the hallmark requirements.



Source by Dickson Adom

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How Singapore Women Treat Men When Dating

It’s no secret that many Singapore women are looking for single Singapore men from all walks of life. The ways how Singapore women treat their men show just how interesting they are when it comes to dating and relationships.

First, many women treat their men with dignity and respect when it comes to hearing what they have to say. They are usually obedient and will follow whatever they men say up to a certain degree. This means that women are more willing to listen to the men that they love and want to be with.

Some Singapore ladies tend to be relatively materialistic. They are interested in possessing different items for their own and often feel that men who have more are better to be around. Many women will treat their men better if these men are able to give them what they want.

This doesn’t mean that single Singapore women have no desire for men who hardly have anything. They just feel that those men could be fixed upon over time.

The next way how women treat men involves being vocal. Singapore girls tend to be more vocal than other women in different parts of the world. They are willing to speak their minds about their men whenever they feel like it. This doesn’t mean that these women are going to say bad things all the time. It just means that they like to be honest and will complement a man when he deserves it and criticize him when he feel he hasn’t done enough for a woman in particular.

This relates heavily to honesty, an aspect that many women have. Single women in Singapore tend to focus on honesty so they can show men of interest what they are really like. This can be the case when finding different Singapore dating services for all sorts of special occasions. Women on these Singapore dating websites are more likely to be honest about themselves and their profiles than men are. It can be a hard consideration but it is one that must be used carefully to get anyone a better chance in dating.

Finally, women in Singapore like to try and get their men to be as equal as they are. Equality is often used in dating to make it easier for people to talk well with each other and to be as comfortable with one another as they can be.

The search for equality is a valuable point to see in any relationship. It is often a sign of how women are likely to want to feel as though they aren’t being abused by their men. Of course, men will have to follow this point but it should not be a risky endeavor because it involves both sides being treated as equals.

Single ladies in Singapore are interesting women to see. These women will treat their men carefully and with respect. However, they are also willing to be a little more critical even if it is just with the intention of being honest at a given time.



Source by Jenny Rogers

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Interpreting A Pet Rat’s Bites

It will happen eventually; your pet rats will bite you. But most of the time, their reason for biting you is not because they want to eat you, or because they don’t like you, or whatever negative things that you interpret a bite to mean. No, most of the time, they are probably showing you some love and affection.

Lacking speech, rats communicate in different ways. Sometimes, they do so with their teeth. Since we are not covered in furs, rat bites can sometimes sting us. Bites vary in severity, and it is important for pet rat owners to distinguish what bites from rats mean. Most rat bites don’t break our skin. Some are just slight nips while some are a little harder. It is rare for a pet rat’s bite to penetrate human skin. When it does happen, often times, it is the owner’s fault.

Gentle nips can be interpreted as some sort of grooming. Yes, rats love to groom each other and if you keep them as pets then they will groom you too most probably because they like you. These nips can be considered as tokens of affection. Don’t pull away your hand when a rat is doing this. Usually, a pet rat scrapes its teeth on your skin to groom you. Other times, gentle nips can also be perceived as something that a rat does to test what kind of being you are and what you are made of, specially when it is still new in your care. It is because the rat is curious and not because it is hungry. There are times though when a pet rat might lick you and nip you because it wants to taste you. But this only happens when you’ve recently just handled some food and you didn’t wash your hands.

There are some moments as well that a rat is grumpy and is not really interested in playing. When you annoy it while it is feeling like this, be prepared for a harder nip. This kind of bite might be harder but it certainly is not that hard enough to break your skin. During moments such as these, just leave the rat alone and don’t disturb it. It will come to you when it’s ready to play and be petted, eventually.

Hard bites that don’t break the skin can also be interpreted as some sort of a game that rats like to play. Your pet rats might think it’s fun, but as these kinds of rat bites sting much more than gentle nips, you should probably try and devise a way to let them know that you don’t like these kinds of game. Don’t get angry with them, just find a solution to stop them from doing it. Do whatever works as long as they’ll learn that playing is good but hard nipping is definitely bad.

It is rare for a pet rat’s bite to draw blood. It does happen though, most probably because you startled or scared it so much its first reaction is to bite hard. Remember that rats are typically prey because of their size and so they startle easily. Don’t startle them.

Bites from pet rats are usually not that hard. Just remember that for a pet rat, a bite is some way of communication or a sign of affection. Don’t be scared because your rat bit you. It’s just showing you how much it likes you.



Source by Dean Ramilo

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Whirlpool Use and Whirlpool Temperatures for Physical Therapy

In physical therapy, whirlpool refers to a special kind of bathtub used in water baths or hydrotherapy. Whirlpools generate air bubbles and water from pumps placed at strategic points allowing the flow of air and water to massage specific muscles of the body. The intensity of circulation of air and water provides either gentle or deep massage. Whirlpools can be either cold or hot with adjustable whirlpool temperatures for physical therapy.

There are different types of whirlpools. They can be permanent fixtures or portable sets. Some whirlpool designs allow full body submersion and others are made for treatment of extremities only. There are cold whirlpools, which is often for treatment of single parts of the body, and warm whirlpools, for full body therapy.

Usually, cold whirlpool temperatures for physical therapy are set at a range of 50º F to 70º F while warm whirlpool temperatures for physical therapy ranges from 100º F to 110º F. Depending on the temperature, whirlpool treatments can last from 10 minutes up to 30 minutes.

Whirlpools are ideal for improving circulation and performing range of movement exercises. In addition, wound care is one of the common uses of whirlpools in physical therapy. Warm whirlpool temperatures for physical therapy wound treatment cleanse wounds; increases blood circulation in the wounded area as well as relieve pain. It also helps soften necrotic tissues and reduce wound infections.

Physical therapists follow a guide for the administration of whirlpool treatment for wound care. Typically, patients undergo whirlpool treatment once to twice every day for 20 minutes. Depending on your wound, whirlpool treatment may include the use of an antiseptic. After whirlpool, the therapist rinses the wound with water to remove any residues.

Therapists closely monitor whirlpool temperatures for physical therapy. Usually, therapists keep the water temperature at 92 °F to 96 °F and not exceeding 38 °C for patients with cardiopulmonary disease. The higher the temperature of the water the greater is the blood circulation.

Health care clinics and facilities have strict policies when it comes to sanitation in whirlpool or water therapy. Personnel must properly clean whirlpool tanks and use disinfectants to prevent infections.

Whirlpool treatment is not for all wound patients. There are also only certain types of wounds that can really benefit from this treatment. Some wounds may even become worse with this method of care. Your therapist will evaluate if whirlpool treatment is suitable to your health condition and type of wound.



Source by Milos Pesic

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