Types of Data Transmission Cables

A transmission medium is required to carry information from a source to a destination. The information is usually a signal that has to travel a long distance. For this, the transmission media can be wired or wireless. In wired transmission, the signal travels along the cable from one device to another. But in wireless transmission the electromagnetic waves are transmitted without using a physical conductor. There are three types of cables such as.

1- Twisted pair cable

2- Coaxial cable

3- Fiber optic cable

Twisted-Pair Cable

A twisted pair cable consists of two copper conductors, each one with its own plastic insulation and twisted together. One wire carries the signal and other is used as ground reference. The advantage of twisting is that both wires are equally affected by external influences. So the unwanted signals are canceled out as the receiver calculates the difference between signals in two wires.

This cable is of two types such as.

1- UTP (unshielded twisted pair)

2- STP (shielded twisted pair)

STP cable has one extra metal shield covering the insulated twisted pair conductors. But this is absent in UTP cables. The most common UTP connector is RJ45.

The unshielded twisted pair cable is classified into seven categories based on cable quality. Category 1 of cables is used in telephone lines with data rate around 0.1 Mbps. Whereas Category 5 used in LANs having 100 Mbps data rate.

Performance of twisted-pair cable is measured by comparing attenuation versus frequency. Attenuation increases with frequency above 100 kHz.

These cables are used in telephone lines to provide voice and data channels. DSL lines and Local area networks also use twisted pair cables.

Coaxial Cable

Coaxial cable (coax) carries high frequency signals than twisted-pair cables. Coax has a central core conductor of solid wire enclosed in an insulator, which is covered by an outer conductor of metal foil. This outer conductor completes the circuit. Outer conductor is also enclosed in an insulator, and the whole cable is protected by a plastic cover.

These cables are categorized by RG (radio government) ratings. RG-59 used for Cable TV, RG-58 for thin Ethernet and RG-11 for thick Ethernet. The connector used in these cables is called BNC connector; it is used to connect the end of the cable to a device.

Though the coaxial cable has higher bandwidth, but its attenuation is much higher compare to twisted-pair cables. It is widely used in digital telephone networks where a single cable can carry data up to 600 Mbps. Cable TV networks use RG-59 coaxial cable. Traditional Ethernet LANs also use this cable.

Fiber-Optic Cable

A fiber optic cable transmits signals in the form of light. Optical fiber use reflection to guide light through a channel. It consists of two main parts: core and cladding. Core is denser compare to cladding and is made up of plastic or glass. Cladding acts as a protective cover to core. The difference in density of core and cladding is such that a beam of light moving through the core is reflected off the cladding, instead of being refracted into it.

Two modes of propagation of light are possible in optical fiber such as: multimode and single mode. Multimode fiber allows multiple beams from a light source move through the core. In multimode step-index fiber, the core density remains constant from the center to the edges. But in multimode graded-index fiber, core density gradually decreases from the center of the core to its edge. Graded-index fiber creates less distortion in the signal compare to step-index.

There are two types of connectors for fiber optic cables. The SC connector is used for cable TV, and ST connector used for connecting cable to networking devices. Attenuation in fiber optic cable is very low compare to other two types of cable. It provides very high bandwidth and immunity to electromagnetic interference. Light weight and greater immunity to tapping makes it more preferable cable.

Fiber optic cable is often used in backbone networks because of its wide bandwidth and cost effectiveness. Local area networks such as 100Base-FX network and 100Base-X use this cable. Also it is used by cable TV companies.



Source by Aditya Smile

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5 Best Android Apps for Graphic Designers

For designers from all walks of life, mobile phones and even tablets are becoming useful and personal tools to excel in their field of creativity. Most of the phones whether it be low-budget or high-end flagships, they run on android as it is the most popular mobile platform in the world.

Basically, android apps make smartphones and tablets interesting tools to do anything a user feels like. There are tons of apps on Google Play Store to help you make graphical masterpieces but to find best ones is not a piece of cake! Do not worry as here is a list of top 5 android apps for professional graphic designers:

  1. Sketchbook Express
    Sketchbook Express can become your companion in those moments when you see something and want to draw It out. Originally created by Autodesk, Sketchbook Express is a free professional sketching and painting app which is specially built for creative soul fanatics who loves to draw down every imaginative idea! This app features various tools to help graphic designers ensure that their work is one step ahead than others. Overall, it is a great app which every designer should install.
  2. Paperless
    Another android app that is gradually leaving its mark on minds of every designer in the world and making its place in Google Play Store Best Apps for Designers is Paperless. Rather than creating masterworks, you can jot down your imaginative ideas and organize them in form of canvas, or e-books. There are 6 tools present for designers which help to sketch, color and writing notes. Without having to log in to your social accounts, you can easily share your creations.
  3. Infinite Design
    Do you want to meet a new kid on the block? Here is Infinite Design which is new on Google Play Store but doing really good and making its space in the industry. All the vector art lovers and designers, this app is specially designed for you as it lets you create immensely mind-boggling designs on smartphones or tablets. It comes packed with various tools like endless layers, infinite canvas and much more which makes this app rather special for graphic designers.
  4. ArtFlow
    If you are finding something different, then here is an android app for graphic designers that tops the popularity charts: Artflow! The user-friendly interface steals the heart away. Creative person of any age group can use ArtFlow. Some of the features that make it stand out are 6-steo undo, 70 brushes, up to 16 layers, etc. Moreover, its ‘Palm rejection’ feature makes it favorite of designers.
  5. Adobe Illustrator Draw
    After reading the name, you would have figured out the makes of this android app. That’s right, Adobe Inc. As a professional graphic designer, if you want to make some exceptional vector artworks and illustrations, do not think twice before using Adobe Illustrator Draw. With 5 vector brushes, scalable strokes, intuitive interface, it becomes a go-to app for every designer.

A designer’s life is unpredictable. You don’t know what may strike you and when. If you are a freelance graphic designer or a professional one working in an agency, try using these apps for making strokes of genius.



Source by Yusuf Javed

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All About Patchwork

Patchwork is the art of sewing pieces of fabric together with the aim of creating a bigger design. It’s simply the art of working with the needle and the thread. It’s a form of needlework whereby pieces of fabric are stitched together in a beautiful manner.

Patchwork is also referred to as “pieced work”. It’s an art that can be mastered by creative individuals. In most cases, women are mostly involved in it. A good number of ladies specialize on different forms of needlework. They produce all kinds of quality materials through the art.

The needlework comes with diverse benefits. It’s often used in producing unique quilts. It’s also used in producing well decorated skirts, jackets, waistcoats and other clothing materials. It’s equally used in making exotic bags, cushion covers, wall hangings and other art materials. In the textile industry, piecework is extensively engaged. Most textile artists are well trained in the art. They combine it with embroidery as they go about producing quality textile materials.

Meanwhile, patchwork can be carried out in diverse ways. In most traditional cultures, it’s often carried out manually. The basic tools required for the manual approach include needles, threads and fabric materials. Most women who engage in the art use such tools in producing quality clothing materials and other items.

In the recent times, different kinds of sophisticated approaches are used in carrying out patchwork. Several companies have come into the business. They use all kinds of machines and instruments in carrying out the piecework. They produce all kinds of bags, clothing materials, cushion covers and other items through the process. In most cases, such items are produced in large quantities. They showcase in diverse sizes, shapes and designs.

Meanwhile, there are several forms of piecework seen across the globe. Among the major forms include Hawaiian, Scrap, English Paper, Seminole, and a lot more. Each of them requires a specific approach. There are also special tools used for each of the forms.

In all, the needlework is becoming very popular all over world. It’s fast becoming a lucrative business for many individuals across the globe. There are popular firms that produce all kinds of fabric materials and products through the art. Many of them engage diverse strategies in producing unique products on regular basis. A good number of such firms now operate through the internet. One can easily get in touch with them when looking for quality items produced through the needlework art.



Source by Chy Eloo Ume

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10 Simple Tips to Develop a Successful Website

Make a plan

Keep in mind that every project starts with a plan. For making a proper plan, write down your ideas and consider about the sections in your site projects are needed. Make categories for your products or services and decide other things to be put in other parts of the website. It would be better for to sketch a simple diagram. It would help you to recall the site structure was planned.

Conduct research and keyword analysis

Do some research work and keyword analysis to find out which keywords help your site to be found on search engines. For this, you can take support from Google AdWords Keyword Tool. Access the tool and enter three to five important keywords that are relevant to your products or services and business.

Choose a reliable provider for web hosting and search for available domain name

For SEO, a keyword sensitive domain name is a great choice. However, you have to decide the domain or a domain name that is better to find in search engines. For selecting a keyword domain, you need to choose the most relevant keyword from your keyword analysis and.com domain to make your website more trusted.

Use Content Management System (CMS) or scratch to develop the site

You know, sometimes using the CMS to create a website is better and sometimes it is not. This choice depends on several influences. It would be better for you, ask your Website Development Company to go for a CMS, if you expand or update your site content frequently. If you are willing to get a static website, choose HTML. Select WordPress blog, if your site has mostly news to publish.

Choose a stylish layout

It is a good choice to use a ready website template for your CMS based or regular website when your design-budget is limited. Recall the plan you made earlier while choosing a web template for your business site. It’s very common that most of you select a design as it looks so good and later you have problems to use a template for the site. Therefore, be very careful and select a stylish layout.

Write original, unique and relevant content

Always keep in mind that the content is the king. While writing content for your site, make sure it is unique, relevant and friendly for search engines. For this, use a set of 3-5 keywords for each page and frame sentences using one keyword in each section or paragraph on a page. Avoid copy-paste work for your web content.

Build the Website

The website development process is very limited, if you use a CMS. You can need to install some needed extensions such as SEO plugins or module depending on the CMS. While developing the site from the scratch, you need to convert your website template into a site. It is essential to use several different header tags (h1, h2 and h3). Use a great page title and the “alt” attribute inside your image tags.

Test your site and remove all problems

When your website is built, you need to conduct some tests. Do it yourself or ask your hired Website Development Company to test all functions and examine your site in different web browsers. Ask other people to test the website. Resolve all the problems before you publish the website.

Do web statistics

After making the site live, you need to know how the visitors behave on your business site. With Google Analytics, you can know the visitors behavior and take the appropriate action to enhance the site.

Promote your website

There are several ways to get visitors to your new site. Based on your choice, you can promote the site at free of cost or through paid advertisements. Spread the news about your new site through writing a press release or mentioning it to all your known persons. For promoting the site, you can opt for SEO, SMO, PPC and so on.

You can do all these at yourself or with the support of your hired Website Development Company. All the best!



Source by Prashant Aggarwal

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Crossdressing and How it Relates to Issues of Transgender For Crossdressed Men and Women

You will find that there are many different forms of crossdressing and also a great number of unique reasons why men and indeed women look to crossdressing as a social behaviour. Some of these reasons include the feeling of inner fulfilment, pleasure and satisfaction of crossdressing in the clothes and behaviour of the opposite sex. You will find that the there are also many external reasons for being a crossdresser these include the deviance of social norms and also to stand out from the crowd. There are also sexual reasons, for cross dressing, and this include all sides of the gay, lesbian, transgender, bisexual, (LGBT community) and not forgetting the large crossdressing hetrosexual transgender folk.

Crossdressers are generally both men and women who like to wear clothes of the member of the opposite sex but have NOT undergone gender reassignment therapy or indeed tend not to suffer from gender disphoria. Once a crossdresser is undergoing transgender treatment from a psychologist they are classed as a preop transsexual and indeed once someone has undergone transgender treatment and sex reassignment surgery (sex change) they are classed as postop transsexual.

It is common for transgender people, including both men and women, to feel the need to disguise their gender identity as that of the opposite sex. For women it has been known in the past for them to want to disguise themselves as the member of the opposite sex for work and employment reasons especially for male dominated employment where they can pass and work as male. On the opposite side of the coin men have worked in a female orientated professions having crossdessed as women.

It is widely acknowledged and accepted that a transvestite and indeed many crossdressers like to appear as a member of the opposite sex for the reasons that it makes them feel good, feel sexy, for fetish reasons, and to create a feminine image of their ideal partner.

Being a drag queen is another form of crossdressing and is widely acceptable in theatre, pantomime and other entertainment groups. A drag queen or female impersonator does however vastly exaggerate the female persona both in costume, makeup and outward expressions. You will likely associate a drag queen as having very colourful and loud clothing, lots of bright makeup, a big wig, and very high heeled shoes. It is not widely known but the term “faux queen” and indeed a drag king is a genetic female / women employing the same drag techniques.

There are many great resources on the internet including articles, books, clothing – women shoes and boots (large sizes), makeup and makeover books and videos, crossdressing guides, tips and tricks that will help you crossdress in a more effective manner.

Many crossdressers try to create a female image of themselves that is acceptable to the outside world and is known as “passable” or trying “to pass” as a member of the opposite sex. However, it is extremely difficult to get away with impersonating a women and effectively passing as the opposite sex without mastering many things include – acceptable clothing for morning, day and evening, how to apply makeup and how much to apply!!!, also managing to get large size shoes and boots that make your feet look small albeit you are size 12. It is also very important to create your female mannerisms, speech and voice feminization or female speaking techniques and sexual behaviour and characteristics.



Source by Val Marks

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